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kong rtse ’phrul rgyal gyis mdzad pa’i bla glud dbus phyogs bzhugs-s+ho

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Kong rtse’s ritual for ransoming the soul

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1. ston pa gshen rabs sku la phyag^lo (phyag ’tshal lo) / lha kong rtse ’phrul rgyal gyi mdzad pa’i bla bslu bcuuṃ (bcu gsum) pa ’di la
2. don bzhi’i bstan te / yas bshaṃs pa dang / byinlabs (byin rlabs) pa dang / spyenng (spyen drang) pa dang / bsngo ba’o / dang po nad pa sogs / spar kha dgra thog du
3. song ba dang / dgra steng yul du bla ’khyams dang / bla dur du zhugs pa dang / bla srin pos khyer ba zhes byas ste / rtag ’di rnaṃs
4. ’byung / gcer bur byas pa smin pa dang / thang stong la nyal pa dang / dgra’i khrid pa dang / lung stong du ’khyams pa dang / chu cheno’i (chen po’i)
5. khyer pa dang / dbyang la lhuṃs pa / dngosu (dngos su) lhres (lha ’dres) khrid pa / de rnaṃs sna re ’byung na ’di byas so / yas sogs la / rinoe’i (rin po che’i) naṃkha’ (nam mkha’) bcuum (bcuum)/

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Homage to the body of sTon pa gshen rab! This thirteen-fold ritual for ransoming souls, composed by the royal Kong tse ’phrul rgyal, comprises four main divisions: the arrangement of the yas offerings; the bestowal of blessings; the invitation [of the divinities], and the dedication of merit. First, regarding the patient and suchlike: if [astrological calculations reveal that] the trigrams are in a state of enmity,(1) the soul is said to be in hostile territory [in its peregrinations around the body], or has entered a cemetery or has been abducted by srin po demons, these signs will appear: dreaming (smin = rmi) that one is naked, or lying in a wilderness, being taken away by enemies, wandering around in a deserted valley, being swept away by a powerful current, falling from cliff, or actually being carried off by gods and demons. If any of these occur, you should arrange these ritual accoutrements: thirteen thread crosses

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Notes

1. ...state of enmity: this would be case if, for example, the element of the patient’s trigram were fire and that of the year in question were water – which is enemy to fire. This information is generally derived from the appropriate pages of the annually-published Tibetan calendars.

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1. rinoe’i (rin po che’i) rgyang bu bcuum (bcu gsum) / gsol pa la / pho thong bcuum (bcu gsum) / mo thong bcuum (bcu gsum) / ’bru sogs la / ngar mi bcuum (bcu gsum)
2. chang zan | ’theb kyu | gtorṃ (gtor ma) | bshos bu | skyogs | khaṃs sogs la / ri rabs bang rim gsuṃ la cig byas / de la yas
3. rnaṃs bkod / pho la g.yas / mo la g.yon / sha brla blu ma nyaṃs pa cig / de la khaṃs gang yin gyis kha dog srin /
4. rta lug sha ba ra srogs chag gang yin gyi gzugs byas / phugsu (phugs su) bla rten bzhog (bzhag go) / sngags drug phyag drugis (drug gis)
5. byinlibs (byin gyis rlabs) / spyenngs (spyen drangs) pa ni / kyai / kong rtse phrul gyi gto / lha yang gson la mi yang nyon /

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and thirteen splints.(1) The offerings should consist of thirteen male and thirteen female effigies. With the grain and so forth there should be 13 ngar mi;(2) 13 chang zan;(3) 13 theb kyu;(4) tormas, dough food-offerings (bshos bu) and dough cups. (5)

To represent the realms, make a three-tiered Mt Meru and arrange the offerings on it. [If the patient is] male, it should be to his right, and if female, to her left. There should also be an unblemished foreleg [of a sheep or a goat], daubed with the colour of whatever happens to be the element [of the year of the patient’s birth]. An effigy should be made of an animal – a horse, a sheep, a deer or a goat – and placed in the innermost part of the room as the “soul support”. It should be blessed with the six-fold set of mantras and hand-gestures. The invitation: Kyai! The gto ceremony of Kong rtse ’phrul [rgyal]: Gods hear me, and men, too, listen!

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Notes
1. Thirteen splints: According to Lessing, byang bu are “decorated wooden tablets resembling arrows of the type called in Ch[inese] ling-chen”. A footnote at this point adds that “The ling-chien ‘commanding arrow’ is an arrow with a triangular flag attached to it. It was used in China as an identification for messengers conveying orders or reports between the armies” (Lessing 1951: 267, 283, n. 18). Blondeau refers to them as “tree symbols” (200: 254). The translation “splint” employed here is intended to represented their appearance in this performance – thin pieces of bamboo partly wrapped in coloured wool – rather than any ritual function they may have.
2. Ngar mi: Human figurines made by pressing dough into the appropriate mould of a carved woodblock (zan par). Painted images may also be used. Lessing states that the ngar mi are intended to appease “a special class of malignant spirit called bla-gçed, ‘soul-killers’” (1951: 267).
3. Lumps of dough that are squeezed into a roughly cylindrical shape in the palm of the hand. According to Lessing, these “are moulded by pressing the knuckles of the fist into the dough” (ibid.: 267).
4. Lumps of dough that are pinched to a sharp apex between the thumb and first two fingers. Lessing describes these as “a food offering made of tsam-pa and resembling small tetrahedron” (ibid.: 267).
5. The rendering of the term skyogs as “cup” is questionable. The usual word for the moulded dough receptacles that often accompany these arrangements is gzhong bu.

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1. ’byung ba lnga’i lha^ogs (lha tshogs) rnaṃs / glud la spyan gshegsuol (gshegs su gsol) / spar kha brgyad kyi lha^ogs (lha tshogs) rnaṃs / glud la | sme ba dgu’i lha^ogs (lha tshogs) | glud la |
2. gtsug lag rtsis kyi lha^ogs (lha tshogs) | glud la | sdyed (sde brgyad) dregs pa’i lhre (lha ’dre) | glud la | bgegs rig stong phrag brgya {1}cu | glud la spyen |
3. snang zhing srid pa’i lhre (lha ’dre) | glud la | ’byon pa rnams la yang ’byon lug dgos / zhseng (zhe sdang) sdug pa’i seṃs kyis ma ’byon cig /
4. gti mug rmongs pa’i sems kyi ma ’byon cig / ’dodg (’dod chag) zhen pa’i sems kyi ma ’byon | byams dang zhi ba’i sems kyi gshegs
5. suol (su gsol) / sarba / yaksha / sarba sre/pre ta sa ma ya dza dza / pho la mda’ la dar dkar rtag la g.yasu (g.yas su) zhag / buemd (bu med) la ’phang la bal dkar rtag
6. la g.yon du bzhag / glud srangs la theg la lci ru song na bla khugs pa yin / lci ru ma song na ma khugs pa yin / mi gos dkor (dkar po) gon

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Divine hosts of the five elements, I invite you to come to this ransom! Divine hosts of the eight trigrams, I invite you to come to this ransom! Divine hosts of the nine sme ba, I invite you to come to this ransom! Divine hosts of science and astrology, I invite you to come to this ransom! Haughty gods and demons of the eight categories, I invite you to come to this ransom! You, the one hundred and ten thousand kinds of obstructive demons, I invite you to come to this ransom! Gods and demons of appearance and of the phenomenal world, I invite you to come to this ransom! You who are coming should do so in a particular manner: come not in a spirit of anger or dismay; come not in a spirit of dullness and stupidity; come not in a spirit of lust and clinging, but come rather in a spirit of gentleness and peace. (ṃantras follow.) If [the patron is] a man, place to his right an arrow with a white silken cloth; in the case of a woman, a spindle with some white wool attached to it should be set on her left. Weigh the ransom effigy on a set of scales, and if it is heavier [at the end of the ritual than at the beginning], this signifies that the soul has been retrieved; but if it has not increased in weight, the soul has not been recovered. The leg of meat should be placed in the hem of a white chuba

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1. pa’i thu par bla lu bcug la / yon+gi (yon bdag gi) mi nas bos / steng lha / ’og klu / bar btsan / lag nas khug / lhrin (lha ’dre srin) sdyed (sde brgyad) lag
2. nas khug / khug cig lan mang du byas / thu khud daṃ(?) la nang log / bla glud ras dkar la dril la / mchan khung g.yon du cug / bla chung [for chu?]
3. dang bla chang thung / bla g.yu skyed la rtags / bla nas phu dung g.yasu (g.yasu) blug / kyai stong gsuṃ stong gis ’jieg (’jig rten) nang / naṃkha’ (nam mkha’) stong gi ’jieg (’jig rten)
4. nang / ’dus pa dang po sems klud [= kyi?] glud / ’byung pa cheno (chen po) mkha’ la stong / mkha’ la gnas pa’i lhrien (lha ’dre srin) rnaṃs / de ring yon+g (yon bdag) mi’u
5. rien (rin chen) la / snga phyis lan+gs (lan chags) ’dres pa yi // bla la brkusṃ (brkus sam) bzhoṃs srid na // bla glud gser skyem gtorṃ (gtor ma) ’di bzhes la / bzung ba thong la bcings pa khrol // mnan pa theg la bsdam pa slod / zhi ba cheo’i (chen po’i) ngang la bzhugs / kyai stong gsum stong gi ’jieg (’jig rten)

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worn by a man who should [go outside and] call out the patron’s name (mi = ming), together with the words “Bring her back from the grasp of the gods on high, the serpent-spirits beneath, the btsan in the middle! Bring her back from the clutches of the eight categories of gods and demons! Bring her back!” After repeating this numerous times, he should bundle up the hem of the chuba and tie it tightly, and then return inside.
Wrap the ransom-effigy of the soul in a white cloth and place it in the left armpit [of the patron]. She should drink the soul-water and the soul-beer, tie the soul turquoise around her neck and put the soul barley into her right sleeve.
Kyai!
In the thousand million worlds, in the world fo the thousand skies, send this first accumulation, the ransom for the mind, to the great element in the sky. Gods and demons who dwell in the sky, today, concerning this precious little one, our patron: if as a result of the confluence of the ripening of her ancient and more recent karma, you have stolen or harmed her soul, accept these tormas and libations as a ransom for her soul; free your captive, release the one who is bound, let the downtrodden one rise, unbind your prisoner, and abide in great peace.
Kyai! In the thousand million worlds,

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1. na / brag rig stong gis lha ma yin / ’dus pa cheno (chen po) rus pa’i glud // ’dus pa cheno (chen po) brag la stong // brag la gnas pa’i lha ma
2. srin / sngon gyis lan chags ’brel pa yi / de ring yon+g (yon bdag) mi’u rien (rin chen) gyi / bla la rkums bzhoms srid na / bla glud gser skyem
3. gtor ma ’di bzhes la / bzung ba thong la bcings ba | mnan pa theg la | zhi ba cheno’i (chen po’i) nang la | kyai stong gsum srid pa’i
4. ’jiegn (’jig rten) na / sa phyogs stong gi ’jiegn (’jig rten) na / ’dus ba cheno’i (chen po’i) sha’i glud / ’byung ba cheno (chen po) sa la bstang / sa la gnas lha ma
5. srin / sngon gyis lan+gs (lan chags) ’brel ba yis / de ring yon+g (yon bdag) mi’u rien (rin chen) | bla la brkusṃ (brkus sam) bzhoms | bla glud gser skyem gtorṃ (gtor ma)
6. ’di | bzung ba thong la bcing ba | mnan pa theg la bsdam pa | zhi ba cheno’i (chen po’i) nga | kyai stong gsum stong gi ’jiegn (’jig rten) na /

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you non-humans of the thousand kinds of crags, this accumulation that is the ransom for her bones, send this great accumulation to the crags! You non-humans who dwell in the crags, if, as a result of the connections among the results of her past action you have stolen or harmed the soul of this little one, our precious patron, accept these libations and these tormas today as a ransom for her soul. Free your captive...!

Kyai! In the thousand million worlds, in the realm of earth, with a thousand places, send this vast accumulation that is the ransom for her flesh to the great element of earth. O demigods who dwell in the earth, if, as a result of the connections among the results of her past actions you have stolen or harmed the soul of this little one, our precious patron, accept these libations and these tormas today as a ransom for her soul. Free your captive! (etc.)

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1. rgya mtsho stong gi ’jigen (’jig rten) na / ’byung ba cheno (chen po) khragi (khrag gi) glud / chu la gnas pa’i lha ma srin / sngon gyi lan+gs (lan chags)
2. ’brel pa’i / de ring yon+g (yon bdag) mi’u rien (rin chen) | bla la brkusṃ (brkus sam) | bla glud gser skyem | bzung ba thong la | mnan pa theg la |
3. zhi ba cheno’i (chen po’i) | kyai stong gsuṃ stong gi ’jieg (’jig rten) na / ’dus pa dang po drod kyis glud / ’byung ba cheno (chen po) me la st[o]ng / drod la gnas
4. pa’i lha mi srin / sngon gyi lan+gs (lan chags) ’brel pa yi / de ring yon+g (yon bdag) mi’u rien (rin chen) | bla la brkusṃ (brkus sam) | bla glud gser skyem gtorṃ (gtor ma)
5. ’di | bzung ba thong la bcings | mnan pa theg la bsdaṃ | zhi ba cheno’i (chen po’i) ngang | kyai stong gsum stong gi ’jigen (’jig rten) na / rlung
6. phyogs stong gi ’jigen (’jig rten) na / ’dus pa cheno (chen po) rlung gi glud / ’byung ba cheno (chen po) rlung la stang / rlung la gnas pa’i lhrien (lha ’dre srin) rnams

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In the realm of a thousand oceans, demigods who dwell in the water accept this great element (1) of blood and...free your captive! (etc.)
In the thousand-times-three thousand worlds, send this first (sic) accumulation, this ransom for bodily warmth, the great element of fire. Demigods who dwell in bodily warmth (2)...free your captive! (etc)
In the realm of the wind with the thousand directions, send this great accumulation, this substitute for vital air, to the great element of wind. (3) Demigods who dwell in the wind

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Notes

1. Sic; but ’byung ba chen po (“this great element”) here is surely an error for ’dus pa chen po, “this great accumulation”
2. drod (bodily warmth) here is almost certainly an error for me, fire.
3. In texts where analogies are drawn between natural elements and bodily components, the corresponding component for the element of wind, rlung, is not usually vital air (also rlung) as here, but breath (dbugs). ggg

 

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1. sngon gyis lan+gs (lan chags) ’brel pa yi / de ring yon+g (yon bdag) mi’u rien (rin chen) | bla la brkusṃ (brkus sam) | bla glud gser skyem | bzung ba thong la | mnan
2. pa theg la | zhi ba cheno (chen po) | kyai stong gsum stong ’jieg (’jig rten) na / lho nub khon(?) gyi gdan steng na / sa bdag phug bdag stong
3. pa nyid / mi btsang thabs dang mkhon la rnyad btags na / kha sang rol po kha nag dus / yon+g (yon bdag) mi’u rien (rin chen) | bla la brkusṃ (brkus sam) |
4. bla glud naṃkha’ (nam mkha’) dpaldn (dpal ldan) dang | rien (rin chen) rgyang bu ’phan bzang dang | ngar mi muis (?) rgyan ldan dang / pho thong dang ni mo thong dang / chang zan ’theb
5. kyu dang / gtorṃ bshos bu rnaṃs ni glud du ’bul / bzung ba thong la| mnan pa theg la bsdaṃ | zhi ba cheno’i (chen po’i) | kyai nub
6. phyogs spar kha da thog na / bdud dang skyes bu sdong pa yi / smes pho’i dri la snyad btag na / na ni ’khyag pa chom chom la /

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...free your captive! (etc.)

Upon the seat of the Khon trigram of the southeast, if you, lords of the soil and the lords of the caves acting in unison, accused her of having an unclean stove, or of being polluted (mkhon) and, while (??? kha sang rol po kha nag dus), you stole or harmed the soul of this little one, our precious patron, I offer you this soul-ransom that is [as vast as] the glorious sky, as well as these precious splints and fine pendant banners, these ngar mi with their adorned human forms, the effigies of males and females, these chang zan and these theb kyu, these tormas and this food – these things I offer you as a ransom. Free your captive! (etc)

Kye kye! Upon the seat of the Kha da trigram to the south, if you, demons and men in union, accused her of being defiled by incest (sme pho) and, as she walked, crunching along, in frozen water-meadows,

 

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1. yon+g (yon bdag) mi’u rien (rin chen) | bla la brkusṃ (brkus sam) | bla glud naṃkha’ (nam mkha’) rgyan dang ldan / rgyang phu rien (rin chen) ’phan bzang dang / pho thong
2. dang ni mo | chang zan ’theb kyu rnams ni glud du ’bul / bzung ba thong ma | mnan pa theg la | zhi ba cheno’i (chen po’i) ngang |
3. kyai byangb (byang nub?) spar kha khen thog na / rgyal ’gong thel rang bsdong pa yi / mi gtsang nal gyis nyen bslang nas / stod/rtod cig
4. ri sngo lung sngo la / yon+g (yon bdag) mi’u rien (rin chen) | bla la brkusṃ (brkus sam) | bla glud naṃkha’ (nam mkha’) rien (rin chen) dpaldn dang / rien (rin chen) rgyang bu phan bzang dang / ngar gyi
5. mi mo rgyan dang bcas / pho thong dang ni mo | zan chang theb kyu rnaṃs ni glud du | bzung ba thong la | mnan pa theg la |
6. zhi ba cheno’i (chen po’i) ngang | kyai byang pyogs spar kha khaṃs thog na / klu dang ma mo bsdong pa yi / nal dang yug la snyad brtag

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you stole or harmed the soul of this little one, our precious patron, I offer you this soul-ransom...(etc.)

Kye kye! Upon the Khen trigram in the northwest, if you, rGyal ’gong demons and thel rang acting in union, accused her (nyen blangs) of being unclean due to fratricide and, as she sat on a green hill or in a green valley, you stole or harmed the soul of this little one, our precious patron, I offer you this soul-ransom...(etc.)

Kye kye! Upon the Khams trigram in the north, if you, serpent spirits and ma mo acting in unison, accused her of [being polluted by] fratricide and widowhood

 

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1. nas / re cig lu ma kha byed dus / yon+g (yon bdag) mi’u rien (rin chen) | bla la brkusṃ (brkus sam) | bla glud naṃkha’ (nam mkha’) rien (rin chen) mdangs ldang dang / rien (rin chen)
2. rgyang bu ’phan bzang dang / ngar gyi mi mo rgyan ldan bcas / pho thong mo thong bshos bu dang / ’theb skyu chang zan rnaṃs
3. ni glud du ’bul / bzung ba thong la | mnan pa theg la | zhi ba cheno’i (chen po’i) | kyai byangr (byang shar) spar kha ging thog na / bandhe’i
4. lhre (lha ’dre) bsrungsma (bsrungs ma) ma’i (?) / rtod/rdod (?) mig sa khyag sdo ’khyag la / yon+g (yon bdag) mi’u | bla la brkusṃ (brkus sam) | bla glud naṃkha’ (nam mkha’) | rien (rin chen) rgyang bu
5. ’phan | pho thong mo thong bshos bu | ngar gyi mi pho rgyan can dang / ’theb rkyu chang zan rnaṃs ni glud du | bzung ba
6. thong la | mnan pa theg la | zhi ba cheno’i (chen po’i) | kyai sharog (shar phyog) spar kha zin thog na / brkor bdag gnyan dang bsdongs

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and, while she was opening an irrigation channel, you stole or harmed the soul of this little one, our precious patron, I offer you this soul-ransom...(etc.)

Kye kye! Upon the Ging (err for Gin) trigram in the northeast, O protective gods and demons of the Buddhist priesthood, if, while she was seated on frozen earth or on a frozen rock, you stole or harmed the soul of this little one, our precious patron, I offer you this soul-ransom...(etc.)

Kye kye! Upon the Zin trigram in the east, if you, warden divinities and mountain gods acting in unison,

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1. pa yi / thing gtsod ’thab rtsod snyad bslangs nas / rtod (?) cig ni sing kha bus la / yon+g (yon bdag) mi’u
2. rien (rin chen) | bla la brkusṃ (brkus sam) | bla glud naṃkha’ (nam mkha’) rien (rin chen) dang | rien (rin chen) rgyang bu ’phan bzang | pho thong mo bshos | {’theb rkyu | ngar gyi} ngar gyi mi
3. pho rgyan bzang | ’theb rkyu chang zan rnams ni glud du | bzung ba thong la | mnan pa theg la | zhi ba cheno’i (chen po’i) | kyai
4. lhogs (lho phyogs) spar kha zon steng na / rgyal ’gong bsnyo ’dre bsdong pa yin / ’jigs par nyal ba snyad btags nas / rdod cig nyi
5. ma log ’tshaṃs na / yon+g (yon bdag) mi’u | bla la bskums | bla glud naṃkha’ (nam mkha’) rien (rin chen) dang rien (rin chen) rgyang bu ’phan bzang dang / ngar
6. gyi mi mo rgyan dang / pho tho mo thong bshos | ’thib brkyu chang zan rnaṃs ni glud du | bzung ba thong la | mnan

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accused her of being quarrelsome (? thing gtsod ’thab rtsod) and, while she was seated on a meadow where [flowers?] were opening (?),you stole or harmed the soul of this little one, our precious patron, I offer you this soul-ransom...(etc.)

Kye kye! Upon the Zon trigram of the southeast, if you, rGyal ’gong demons and demons of madness acting in unison, accused her of sleeping in a frightening place and, at the time of the solstice, when the sun had reached its limit and was turning back, you stole or harmed the soul of this little one, our precious patron, I offer you this soul-ransom...(etc.)

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1. pa theg | zhi ba cheno’i (chen po’i) | kyai lho phyogs spar kha li steng na / btsan dang dri po bsdongs pa yi / thabs gzhob gnyis
2. la snyad btag nas / rtod cig spang po kha ser la / yon+g (yon bdag) mi’u | bla la brkusṃ (brkus sam) | rien (rin chen) naṃkha’ (nam mkha’) | rien (rin chen) rgyang bu |
3. ngar gyi mi mo rgyan | pho-thong mo-thong | ’theb brkyu chang zas rnams ni | bzung pa thong la | mnan pa theg la bsdam |
4. zhi ba cheno’i (chen po’i) | kyai stong gsum stong gi ’jigen (’jig rten) na / steng phyogs gza’ bdu ’jigen (’jig rten) na / mi yang sngo la rta yang sngo /
5. ber yang sngo la thod yang sngo po bcing / dar mdung sngon po phyag na thog / khyi yang sngo la bya sngon lding / mda’
6. dang zhags pa sngon po ’phen / steng na gnas pa’i lha ma srin / stengs phyogs khamṃs la dbang sgyur ba’i / kha sang kha

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Kye kye! Upon the Li trigram in the south, if you, btsan and sorcerers (dri bo) acting in unison, accused her of [polluting] the stove and producing a smell of scorching, and, while she was on a meadow with a yellow surface, you stole or harmed the soul of this little one, our precious patron, I offer you this soul-ransom...(etc.)

Kye kye! In the thousand-times-three thousand worlds, in the realm of the demons of the planets on high, the riders are blue and have blue horses; their cloaks and the turbans they wear are blue; they bear lances with blue silks; their dogs are blue and their birds are blue; their arrows and their nooses are blue.

Demigods who dwell above, ruling over that exalted realm, if, a few days ago

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1. ning nyi mo la / yon+g (yon bdag) mi’u | bla la brkusṃ (brkus sam) | bla glud naṃkha’ (nam mkha’) | rien (rin chen) rgyang bu ’phan | gser bskyem
2. ngar mi rgyan dang bcas / phoong (pho thong) moong (mo thong) glud du ’bul / bzung ba thong la | mnan pa theg la | zhi ba cheno’i (chen po’i) | kyai
3. stong gsum stong gi ’jigsen (’jig rten) na / lho phyogs stong gi ’jigten (’jig rten) na / lho phyogs grul ’buṃ gshien’i (gshin rje’i) gdon / mi yang ser la
4. rta yang ser / ber yang ser la thod yang ser / khyi yang ser la bya ser lding / dar mdung ser po phyag na rnaṃs / mda’ dang
5. zhags pa ser po ’phen / khyed ni lho phyogs lha ma srin / lho phyogs khaṃs la dbang sgyur ba’i / kha tsang kha nyin nyin mo
6. kun / yon+g (yon bdag) mi’u | bla la brkusṃ (brkus sam) | bla glud naṃkha’ (nam mkha’) rien (rin chen) | rien (rin chen) rgyang bu ’phan | mnan pa theg la | zhi ba cheno’i (chen po’i) |

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you stole or harmed the soul of this little one, our precious patron, I offer you this soul-ransom...(etc.)

Kye kye! In the thousand-times-three thousand worlds, in the thousand worlds of the south, you malign grul ’bum, demons of the lords of the dead, where both the riders and their mounts are yellow, their cloaks and their turbans are yellow, and their dogs are yellow and their yellow birds soar; holding spears with yellow silks, loosing yellow arrows and casting yellow nooses: O demigods of the south, who rule over the southern realm, if, a few days ago, you stole or harmed the soul of this little one, our precious patron, I offer you this soul-ransom...(etc.)

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1. kyai stong gsuṃ stong gi ’jigten (’jig rten) na / nub phyogs stong gi ’jigten (’jig rten) na / klu bdud gdon ni dmor (dmar po) cig / mi yang dmar la
2. rta yang dmar / ber yang dmar la thod dmar bcing / khyi yang dmar la bya dmar lding / dar mdung dmor (dmar po) phyag na snaṃs /
3. mda’ dang zhags pa dmar po snaṃs / nub kyi phyogs lha ma srin // nub phyogs khaṃs la dbang rgyur la // kha sang kha nyin nyi
4. mo kun / yon+g (yon bdag) mi’u | bla la brkusṃ (brkus sam) | bla glud naṃkha’ (nam mkha’) rien (rin chen) | rien (rin chen) rgyang bu ’phan | gser skyeṃs ngar mi rgyan dang
5. bcas / bzung ba thong la | mnan ba theg la | zhi ba cheno’i (chen po’i) | kyai stong gsuṃ stong gi ’jigten (’jig rten) na / byangogs (byang phyogs) stong gi
6. ’jigten (’jig rten) na / gnod byin gdon ni ljang khu cig / mi yang ljang la rta yang ljang / ber yang ljang la thod ljang

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Kye kye! In the thousand-times-three thousand worlds, in the thousand worlds of the west, is a malign red serpent-spirit demon. Both rider and horse are red; he has a red cloak and wears a red turban, with a red dog and a soaring red bird; holding a fierce red lance in his hand, with red arrows and a red lasso; demigod of the west, ruler of the realm of the west, if a few days ago or on any other day you stole or harmed the soul of this little one, our precious patron, I offer you this soul-ransom...(etc.)

Kye kye! In the thousand-times-three thousand worlds, in the thousand worlds of the north, is a malign Yaksha. Both rider and horse are green. His cloak is green and he wears a green turban,

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1. bcing / dar mdung ljang khu phyag na rnaṃs / khyi yang ljang la bya ljang lding / mda’ dang zhags
2. pa ljang khu ’phen / khyed byang gi phyogs kyi lha ma srin // byang phyogs khaṃs la dbang brgyur ma / kha tsang kha nyin
3. nyi mo kun / yon+g (yon bdag) mi’u | bla la brkusṃ (brkus sam) | bla glud naṃkha’ (nam mkha’) rien (rin chen) | rien (rin chen) rgyang bu ’phen | gser skyeṃs ngar mi
4. rgyan dan bcas / bzung pa thong la | mnan pa theg la | zhi ba cheno’i (chen po’i) / kyai stong gsuṃ stong gi ’jigen (’jig rten) na / shar
5. phyogs stong gi ’jigen (’jig rten) na / dri’ za’i gdon ni dkar po cig / mi yang dkar la rta yang dkar / ber yang
6. dkar la thod dkar bcing / dar mdung dkar po phyag na snaṃs / khyi yang dkar la bya dkar lding / mda’ dang zhags

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and he holds a green lance in his hand. His dog is green, and his green bird soars. He looses green arrows and casts a green lasso. Demigod of the north, ruler of the realm of the north, if a few days ago or on any other day you stole or harmed the soul of this little one, our precious patron, I offer you this soul-ransom...(etc.)

Kye kye! In the thousand-times-three thousand worlds, in the thousand worlds of the east, is a malign white fragrance-eater. Both rider and horse are white. He wears a white cloak and a white turban, and holds a white lance. His dog is white, and his white bird soars. He looses white arrows and casts a white noose.

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1. pa dkar po ’phen / khyed shar kyi phyogs kyi lha ma srin / sharogs (shar phyogs) khaṃs la dbang bsgyur bas / yon+g (yon bdag) mi’u | bla
2. la brkusṃ (brkus sam) | bla glud naṃkha’ (nam mkha’) rien (rin chen) rgyang bu | gser skyems ngar mi rgyan | bzung ba thong | mnan ba theg la |
3. zhi ba cheno’i (chen po’i) | kyai stong gsum stong gi ’jigten (’jig rten) na / ’tshaṃs zhi steng gi ’jigten (’jig rten) na / me lha skuomg (sku mdog) khra bo cig /
4. mi yang khra’o rta khra zhon / khyi yang khra bo bya khra lding / dar mdung khra bo phyag na snaṃs / mda’ dang zhags pa
5. khra bo ’phen / khyed ’tshams kyis phyogs kyi lha ma srin / ’tshaṃs bzhi bdag la dbang bsgyur ba’i / yon+g (yon bdag)
6. mi’u | bla la brkusṃ (brkus sam) bzhoṃs | bla glud naṃkha’ (nam mkha’) rien (rin chen) | rien (rin chen) rgyang bu ’phen | gser skyeṃs ngar mi rgyan dang bcas /

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Demigod of the east, ruler of the realm of the east, if you have stolen or harmed the soul of this little one, our precious patron, I offer you this soul-ransom...(etc.)

Kye kye! In the thousand-times-three thousand worlds, in the thousand worlds of the four interstices, is a varicoloured fire-god. The rider is varicoloured, and so is the horse he rides. He has a varicoloured dog, and his varicoloured bird soars. He holds a varicoloured lance in his hand. He looses varicoloured arrows and casts a varicoloured noose. Demigod of the insterstices, ruling over the realm (bdag err for khams?) of the interstices, if you have stolen or harmed the soul of this little one, our precious patron, I offer you this soul-ransom...(etc.)

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1. bzung ba thong | mnan pa theg | zhi ba cheno’i (chen po’i) | kyai ’og phyogs sa bdag nag po’i gdon /
2. mi ni khaṃs nag rta nag cig / rta ni khaṃs nag ral chen zhon / ber yang khaṃs nag lus la gon / dur
3. kha’i thod khyer gho la bcings / khyi dang bya yang du kha lding / mda’ dang zhags pa dud kha ’phen / khyed ’og gi
4. phyogs kyi lha ma srin / ’ogi (’og gi) phyogs la dbang sgyur bas / kha tsang kha ring nyin mo kun / yon+g (yon bdag) mi’u | bla
5. la brkusṃ (brkus sam) | bla glud naṃkha’ (nam mkha’) rien (rin chen) | gser skyeṃs ngar mi rgyan | bzung ba thong la | mnan pa
6. theg | zhi ba cheno’i (chen po’i) | kyai bdud kyi rgyal po tri ti ghong yag dang / ye zluṃ thang po dang | (?) bdud rje rmang khug dang /

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Kye kye! ṃalign one of the black earth-lords of the underworld, a dark brown rider mounted on a dark brown horse, a horse with a tangled dark brown mane; wearing a dark brown cloak, and on his head an orange turban. He has an orange dog, and his orange bird soars. He looses orange arrows and casts an orange lasso. Demigod of the underworld, ruling over the underworld, if you have stolen or harmed the soul of this little one, our precious patron, I offer you this soul-ransom...(etc.)

Kye kye! Demon king Ri (text erroneously has Tri ti) ti ghong yag, Ye zlum [2S], bDud rje rmang khug,

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1. ’dzin pa zhags thogs dang / gcod pa stags thogs / ce re mi rkun dang / che ba bdud kyi sde tshogs dang / yon
2. dag mi’u | bla la brkusṃ (brkus sam) | bla glud naṃkha’ (nam mkha’) | rien (rin chen) rgyang bu ’phan | gser skyeṃs ngar mi rgyan | bzung ba thong | mnan
3. ba theg | zhi ba cheno’i (chen po’i) | kyai btsun pa dmu’i lh^ogs (lha tshogs) na / dmu rje btsan pa dang / dmu blon dkag pa dang / dmu
4. phyugs skyer zhon zor thogs dang / long ba dmu long dang / zha ba dmu zha dang / gruṃ bu dmu gruṃ dang / lkugs pa dmu
5. lkugs dang / dmu’i stong sde ’khors (’khor bcas) kyis / yon+g (yon bdag) mi’u | bla la brkuṃs (brkus sam) | khyed la bla glud naṃkha’ (nam mkha’) mdang
6. ldan dang / rien (rin chen) rgyang bu ’phan / gser skyeṃs ngar mi rgyan | bzung ba thong | mnan pa theg | zhi ba cheno’i (chen po’i) |

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’Dzin pa zhags thogs, gCod pa stags thogs, Ce re mi rkun and the host of mighty demons - if you have stolen or harmed the soul of this little one, our precious patron, I offer you this soul-ransom...(etc.)

Kye kye! Lordly1 dṃu, dṃu rje btsan pa, dṃu blon dkag pa, dṃu phyugs skyer zhon zor thogs, Long ba dmu long, Zha ba dmu zha, Grum bu dmu grum, lKugs pa dmu lkugs2 and the thousand-fold entourage of dṃu, if you have stolen or harmed the soul of this little one, our precious patron, I offer you this soul-ransom...(etc.)

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1 btsun pa, “lordly”, is a standard epithet for the dmu divinities.

2 Note that the names of dmu frequently indicate the afflictions with which they are believed to be associated. Thus, zha ba and grum pa: lame, crippled; lkugs pa: mute; long ba: blind.

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1. kyai drag po btsan gyi sde tshogs kyi / spyi btsan kha zhi dmig brgyad dang / lha bcan drag
2. btsan gang btsan klu btsan gangs btsan dang / nag btsan spang btsan g.ya’ btsan dang / kun kyang
3. naṃza’ (nam bza’) sn^ogs (sna tshogs) gsol / yon+g (yon bdag) mi’u | bla la brkusṃ (brkus sam) | bla glud naṃkha’ (nam mkha’) | rien (rin chen) rgyang bu | gseerṃs (gser skyems) ngar mi | bzung
4. ba thong | mnan pa theg | zhi ba cheno’i (chen po’i) | kyai ya cho rgyal po’i sde tshogs ni / gnaṃ lha dkar po dang / ding gung
5. dkor (dkar po) dang / ’ur gyung dkor (dkar po) dang / khu le lag dgu dang / yab zhur dmor (dmar po) dang / lag pa spa gu dang / ’gying chen
6. rdoer (rdo rje) legs pa dang / rgyalo’i (rgyal po’i) sde tshogs thaṃd (thams cad) kyi / yon+g (yon bdag) mi’u | bla la brkugs | bla glud naṃkha’ (nam mkha’) | rien (rin chen) rgyang bu |

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Kye kye! Host of ferocious btsan: foremost btsan with the four faces and eight eyes; Divine btsan, btsan of the crags (drag for brag), btsan of the glaciers (gang for gangs), btsan of the serpent-spirits, btsan of the glaciers;1 btsan of the forests, btsan of the meadows, btsan of the slate hills, don these various garments! if you have stolen or harmed the soul of this little one, our precious patron, I offer you this soul-ransom...(etc.)

Kye kye! Host of the ya cho (?) rgyal po! gNam lha dkar po, Ding gung dkar po, ’Ur gyur dkar po, Khu la lag dgu, Yab zhur dmar po, Lag pa spu gu, ’Gying chen rDo rje legs pa and all the hosts of the rgyal po, if you have stolen or harmed the soul of this little one, our precious patron, I offer you this soul-ransom...(etc.)

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1 The repetition of gang/gangs may be an error, or else one of the two may be meant to represent sgang, “ridge” or “hill”. In any event, in a topographic sequence of this sort gangs would usually come first, followed by brag.

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1. gseerṃs (gser skyems) ngar mi | bzung ba thong la | mnan ba theg | zhi ba cheno’i (chen po’i) | kyai klu gnyan sa bdag sde tshogs ni / rje rig
2. rmang rig dang // bram ze’i rig dang rgyal rigs dang / brdol ba nog (nag po) ’khorngs (’khor dang bcas) / sa bdag rtsangng (CHECK) ’khor ba dang / sa’i lha mo
3. stan ma dang / shar kyi sa bdag stag kya bo dang / lho’i sa bdag ’brug sngon po dang / nub kyi sa bdag bya dmor (dmar po) dang / byang
4. gis sa bdag ’brong rog po dang / lo zla zhag dang dus tshod kyi sa bdag dang / klu gnyan sa bdag sde tshogs ’khors (’khor bcas)
5. kyi / yon+g (yon bdag) mi’u | bla la brkusṃ (brkus sam) | bla glud naṃkha’ (nam mkha’) rien (rin chen) rgyang bu dang / gser skyems ngar mi bshos bu glud du ’bul /
6. bzung ba thong la | mnan pa theg la | zhi ba cheno’i (chen po’i) | kyai snang srid lhrin (lha srin) sdyed (sde brgyad) thaṃd (thams cad) la / bla glud gser skyems

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Kye kye! Host of the ...(lacuna) [serpent-spirits!]: you of lordly and of commoner rank, of priestly and royal rank, with your entourage of black outcastes; Lord of the Soil rTsang rtsang and your entourage; Goddess of the Earth with your brtan ma; Eastern Lord of the Soil, with your grey tiger; Southern Lord of the Soil with your blue dragon; Western Lord of the Soil with your red bird; Northern Lord of the Soil withy your black wild yak; Lords of the Soil of the year, the month, the day and the hour; host of serpent-spirits, mountain gods, lords of the soil with your companions/entourages, if you have stolen or harmed the soul of this little one, our precious patron, I offer you this soul-ransom...(etc.)

Kye kye! All you eight classes of gods and demons of the phenomenal world, I offer you this thirteen-fold soul ransom and libation;

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1. bcuum (bcu gsum) dang / naṃkha’ (nam mkha’) rien (rin chen) | rgyang bu ’phan bzang | ngar mi brgyan can | ’bru’i chang zas | ’theb
2. skyu | rgyan mdzes zhin du smra khas pa | phoong (pho thong) moong (mo thong) | bshos bu gtorṃ (gtor ma) dang / bla glud ngo chen bcuum (bcu gsum) ’di / lha bu bcuis (bcu gnyis)
3. mgo dang bcuum (bcu gsum) gyi / glud du ’bul / lus ngag yid gsum gyi | rnaṃs shes tshogs brgyad kyi | bzung ba | bcing ba | mnan
4. ba theg | zhi ba cheno’i (chen po’i) | ma yaṃ chud kyi sde tshogs ni / steng bdud rgyolṃ (rgyal mo) dang / bar gyi bran mo dang / mkha’i blon mo
5. dang / yang g.yog khyo ’khor dgu / ’tshaṃs kyi blon mo dang / steng bdud ma mo’i sde^ogs (sde tshogs) kyis / yon+g (yon bdag) mi’u rien (rin chen)
6. gyi / bla la rkuṃs (rkus sam) zhoms srid na / bla glud bcuum (bcu gsum) ’di ’bul gyis / bzung ba thong la bcings ba khrol / mnan ba

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these thirteen precious thread crosses; these thirteen beneficial splints, these thirteen ornamented ngar mi; these thirteen chang zan; these thirteen theb kyu; these thirteen male and female effigies, beautifully adorned and well-spoken; these thirteen tormas as your food. I offer you this thirteen-fold patrician soul-ransom in exchange for the twelve princes, thirteen with their leader (?); for the body, speech and mind [of our patron], and her eight consciousnesses. Free your captive, release the one who is bound, let the downtrodden one rise, unbind your prisoner, and abide in great peace.

Host of ma yam goddesses among the chud class: demon-queens above; slaves in the middle; female ministers in the sky; the servants of your servants, a company of nine men; female ministers of the interstices; host of demoness-ma mo above, if you have stolen or harmed her soul, accept these tormas and libations as a ransom for her soul; free your captive, release the one who is bound, let the downtrodden one rise, unbind your prisoner, and abide in great peace.

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1. theg la sdaṃ ba slod / zhi ba cheno’i (chen po’i) ngang la bzhugs // kyai snang srid lha srin sdyed (sde brgyad) rnaṃs / phul pa’i glud ’di bzhes
2. la / bderes (bde bar gshegs) ba’i bka’ la nyon / gnod pa’i bdug seṃs zhi ba dang / phan pa byang chub kyis seṃs dang ldan par
3. shog / rdzogs+ho / bkra shis dar la rgyas par shog /

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unbind your prisoner, and abide in great peace. Hey! You eight categories of demigods of the phenomenal world, receive these ransoms that we offer you; heed the word of the Sugāta; let your harmful hearts be at peace, and come in a spirit of enlightened benevolence. The end; may blessings abound.