Bon skyong rgyun tshogs

The ritual of incitation by means of tormas (gTor bskul)

The ritual based on this text is known as gTor bskul, “incitation by means of tormas”. As the title suggests, the purpose is to exhort (bskul) the protective divinities represented by the tormas to ward off hostile powers. Some forty divinities, or categories of divinities, are invoked in turn. Each is described in detail with reference to its colour, demeanour, attributes and, where relevant, its entourage. A recurring refrain reminds the divinities of their ancient oath to serve Bon, and offers them beautifully-decorated tormas in exchange for protecting the doctrine and the priest. The invocation implies a significant feature of these effigies: whereas certain tormas are simply offerings, others are the embodiments of the protectors.  Before the invocation of the last set of protectors in the list, the Red and Black Nets (dra ba), is a series of five subsidiary rituals for transcendent divinities, yidams. These are: Kun bzang a gsal; dBal gsas; sTag lha; Khro rgyal sPyi ’dul, and Srid pa’i rgyal mo with the Red Mule. (The latter has already been invoked and propitiated as the third in the list of protectors; this is because, like certain gods, she has a dual aspect as both a protector and a yidam.) Some of the divinities invoked are transcendent gods, the yidams, but the intended beneficiaries of the offerings are the worldly protectors who constituted their retinues. Each of these five sections is introduced as a dMar lam. According to a Zhangzhung-Tibetan dictionary, a dMar lam is “a type of torma offering ritual” (gtor ’bul gyi cho ga zhig; see note to fol. 2431b), in which the offerings that are visualised are particularly lavish. Although the dmar implies that this rite entails “red” offerings, the first of the five, which invokes the benign Kun bzang a gsal, specifies no such items. In the case of some of the dmar lam sections it is not the central divinity, the yidam, but only the protectors in the entourage who are propitiated. It should be noted that even though only some of divinities listed are represented as tormas on the altar during the performance, the text is recited in its entirety. The following list sets out the main sections.

  1. Srid pa’i rgyal mo
  2. The Three Sentinels (Bya ra ma)
  3. Srid pa’i rgyal mo with the Red Mule
  4. Mi dred ma
  5. Dra’u nag mo
  6. Yum sras
  7. sGra bla ma
  8. sTag ri rong
  9. The sman mo
  10. Zhi ba lhan skyes (benign divinity born together with us)
  11. gCen lha
  12. gShin rje
  13. Mi bdud
  14. The Eight Haughty Ones
  15. The General (dmag dpon)
  16. Hur pa the btsan
  17. A bse
  18. Nyi pang sad
  19. The territorial divinities
  20. The treasure guardians
  21. Pom ra
  22. The treasure-guardians of Targo
  23. Yi phyi ma and her entourage:
  24. Klu bdud nag po of Mt Has po ri
  25. Brag btsan dmar po of bSam yas
  26. Ni sing klu mo
  27. The protectors of Paro
  28. Yar lha sham po
  29. sKu lha Drags skyes
  30. gSang ba rin chen
  31. Ekajati
  32. Thig le stong khyab ma
  33. The treasure guardians
  34. The ’gur lha and the brtan ma
  35. The gods of the territory in which one happens to be
  36. dMar lam of Kun bzang a gsal
  37. dMar lam of dBal gsas
  38. dMar lam of sTag lha
  39. Haughty Ones of the Kings of the four Quarters
  40. dMar lam of [the yidam Khro rgyal] sPyi ’dul
  41. dMar lam of Srid rgyal with the Red Mule
  42. Red and Black Dra ba



1. bon skyongs rgyun tshogs nar ma’i dbu phyogs bzhugs so |

The regular offering of consecrated food to the Bon protectors.


1. bswo gsas mkhar dbang chen gzhal yas ’bar ba nas | dus gsuṃ
2. bder shegs rig lnga ye shes gtso | thyid (thugs nyid) ngang las bcas bcos [correct and modify] khro bo’i mchog | dbal gsas rngaṃ pa khro
3. rgyal mkhying (mkha’ ’gying) kha | rngaṃ mo yum chen dbyings kyis mtshan drug ma | mi bzad gnaṃ gyi lha
4. rgod thog pa rje | srid pa’i rgyal ṃo ’gran gyis zla med ma | thyes (thugs rjes) gtsooṃg (gtso mchog) khro rgyal mkhying (mkha’ ’gying) kha |
5. shesb (shes rab) btsun mo ’khor dang g.yog tu bcas | thyid (thugs nyid) mi bzad zhi ba’i rang bzhin las | thyes (thugs rjes)

bSwo! From the great blazing divine citadel, the supreme ones of the tathagatas of the three times, the five Buddha families and the [five] wisdoms; manifestations (lit. modifications) of the state of the ultimate nature of mind, the supreme wrathful one, Khro rgyal mkha’ ’gying kha and your fearsome consort with the six names of the primordial dimension; most terrible one of the sky, the lord lHa rgod thog pa, and your unrivalled [consort] Srid pa’i rgyal mo; [the manifestation of] compassion, gTso mchog mkha’ ’gying and your noble lady, the manifestation of wisdom [mKha’ la gdug mo] with your entourage! From the nature of the immeasurable nature of mind

dBal gsas khro rgyal = manifestation of body; lHa rgod thog pa = manifestation of speech; gTso mchog mkha’ ’gying = manfestation of mind


1. mi bzad khros pa’i rtags bstan pa | yab yum sprul pa’i ’khor
2. dang bcas pa rnaṃs | khyed la mchod pa ’bul ba’i tshogs rnaṃs ni | gzugs dang sgra dang dri dang ro
3. dang reg | brgyan dang yid bzhin ’byung pa’i tshogs | bla ṃed mchod pa sprin gyi brgyan bshaṃs nas |
4. mchod pa’i lha mor rol te mchod par ’bul | thabs dang shes rab rol par bzhes nas
5. kyang | bdag sogs ’gro drug dbyings su thar bar mdzod | gnam phyi dgung rgyal lha ṃo srid pa’i

showing the wrathful signs of irresistible compassion, divine couples with your entourages: this collection of offerings that we raise to you, for sight, sound, smell, taste and touch, adorned and delightful - supreme offerings, bedecked with clouds, that we have set out: we manifest the offering-goddesses to present them to you. Bring about the union of method and wisdom and receive them, and ensure that we who dwell in the six realms of samsaric existence attain liberation in the primordial dimension. Divine gNam phyi dgung rgyal,


1. yum | ma srid gze ma gyad mo spar ma’i tshogs | gyed dang dmag dpon las mkhan rgyal chen rnaṃs | bdud rtsi
2. mi bzad brgyan tshogs ’di ’bul gyis | sdang dgra gnod bgegs mi mthun logs pa’i tshogs | bar chod ma lus
3. bsrungs zhing bzlog tu gsol | bswo | ōṃ bha wa de na ra sa ya na kha thun a mu kha thiṃs thiṃs za ru
4. swa ha | sri rgyal bskul pa ni | ma duṃ (< dus) gsuṃ sangs rgyas kun gyis bka’ skyongs mthu mo che | ma mchog srid pa’i
5. rgyal mo dbyings kyis yuṃ | dkyil ’khor phying (phyi nang) yongs kyis bstan srungs ma | ye shes dbal mo’i tshogs dang bcas pa la |

mother of the universe, with your hosts of gze ma, gyad mo and spar ma: you who are her agents – the gyad, the generals, kings of the four directions: in return for this consecrated food adorned with inexhaustible nectar that we are offering you, we pray you, protect us from hate-filled enemies, and all our other adversaries, and repel them! bSwo! [Mantras follow.]

The exhortation of Srid pa’i rgyal mo
You, mighty female who protect the word of all the Buddhas of the three times: supreme mother, queen of the phenomenal world and mother of the primordial dimension, protrectress of the outer, inner and secret mandala in its entirety; together with your host of dbal mo of primordial wisdom,


1. daṃ rdzas gtor ṃa rgya chen ’di ’bul gyis | sang rgyas g.yung drung bon gyis bstan pa srungs |
2. bsgrub gshen bdag gis mthu dpung sdong grog mdzod | mi mthun rkyen dang ba chod ma lus kun | mkha’ klong dbyings su
3. yum gyis zhi bar mdzod | bso ma ma mu ye ra yo dza | bya ra ma gsuṃ ni | bso | ye shes dbyings kyi gsas ṃkhar
4. nas | dkar mo sri pa’i rgyal ṃo dang | a klong ’bar pa’i klong dkyil nas | smug mo sri pa’i rgyal po dang | mu
5. li her kyi nang shad nas | nag mo srid pa’i rgyal ṃo dang | bka’ yi bya ra ma gsum yang | sngon gyi tha tshig ma
6. bsnyel ba | ’di spyon rgyan gyi gtor ṃa long | g.yung drung bon gyis bstan pa bsrungs | bsgrub chen bdag gis sdo drog mdzod |

through this vast offering of tormas, these excellent things, protect the Eternal Bon doctrine of the enlightened one; support the magical power of this tantric priest; Mother, quell all adverse circumstances and hindrances in the sky, in space, and in the primordial dimension. bSo! ma ma yu ye ra yo dza.

The three Bya ra ma
bSo! From the divine citadel of the dimension of primordial wisdom, the white Srid pa’i rgyal mo; from the middle of the expanse of the dimension of pure sound, the brown Srid pa’i rgyal mo; and from the inside of the Mu li her, the black Srid pa’i rgyal mo. Do not falter in your commitment of old; receive these beautifully adorned tormas; protect the doctrine of Eternal Bon; assist this tantric master;


1. mi mthun rkyen dang bar chad bzlog | bcol pa’i phrin las grub par mdzod | dri’u dmar mo | bso gtso mchog thugs kyi sras [= gsas?] yum {1S – che?} |
2. ma cig bka’ gsang lha ṃo ni | zhal gsuṃ phyag drug dri’u dmar mo bcibs | ’khor ni zhi rgya dbang drag lha ṃo
3. ’bum gyi bkor | sngon gyis =| ’dir byon =| g.yung drung bon =| bsgrub chen=| mi mthun =| bcol ba’i phrin =|
4. mi dred ma | bso stong gsuṃ rab ’jig dur khrod mchog | me rlung tshub ma’i klong kyil nas | keng rus ri rab mkhar
5. gyis nang | baṃ chen gsar snying bden steng nas | dmar nag bhyo yi ’phruo (’phro ’du) la | mi dred ’jigs pa’i bdan
6. stengs nas | ma cig srid pa’i rgyal ṃo la | ma mo bzhi sogs ’khor gyis bskor | sngon gyi =| ’dir spyon =| g.yung drung

repel adverse circumstances and obstructions, and perform the task that has been entrusted to you!

Srid pa’i rgyal mo with the Red Mule
[Great divine?] mind-consort of gTso mchog mkha’ ’gying, the one mother bKa’ gsang lha mo, with three heads and six arms, riding a red mule, surrounded by a hundred thousand goddesses of peaceful, prospering, overpowering and wrathful action; do not falter..!

Mi dred ma
In the cemetery that strikes fear into the thrice-thousand worlds, from the midst of a whirlwind, the sacred place that is the great mountain castle of skeletons, from atop your seat of new and old corpses, with the expression and retrieval of the dark-red syllable BHYO, on your seat, a fearsome bear, one mother Srid pa’i rgyal mo, surrounded by your entourage of the four ma mo and others, do not falter...!


1. bon | bsgrub chen bdag =| mi thun =| bcol ba’i =| dra’u nag mo | bso gru gsuṃ
2. mthing nag ’bar ba nas | dre’u nag mo’i bdan stengs nas | ma cig bde ’gro gsang yum la | gze
3. gyad spar ma ’khor gyis bskor | sngon gyi =| ’dir spyon =| g.yung drung bon =| bsgrub chen =| mi mthun =|
4. bcol ba’i | yum sras | bso yul ni khri ’dus stong tshogs nas | mkhar ni dgu khri stong bshong nas | ma
5. bdud nag ṃo khro gnyer srid pa’i rgyal | bka’ nyan lha bdud klu bdud btsan bdud dang | mi bdud la sogs yuṃ sras lnga
6. po yang | sngon gyis =| ’dir =| g.yung drung =| bsgrub chen =| mi mthun=| bcol ba’i =| rdzu ’phrul sman bzhi | bso |

Dra’u nag mo
From the blazing, deep-black triangle, from atop your black mule seat, one mother, secret consort of the higher realms, surrounded by your entourage of gze, gyad and spar ma; do not falter.... bSo!

Yum sras
bSo! From the land of the myriad gathered, the thousand assembled, the castle in which ninety-one thousand can meet, Srid rgyal, Demon-mother, Black angrily-frowning woman; you five, the mother and your followers: lHa bdud, Klu bdud, bTsan bdud and Mi bdud, do not falter....!


1. byang phyogs g.yu mtsho’i gting ruṃ nas | gnaṃ phyi dgung rgyal ye phyi gung sangs dang | phyo ma ye sangs gnaṃ sman =|
2. dkar mo dang | rdzu phrul sman bzhi bka’i bya ra ma | sngon =| ’dir =| g.yung drung =| bsgrub chen =| mi mthun =| bcol
3. ba’i =| sgra bla ma | bso g.yu dang mun pa’i gur khang nas | ’phar spyang stag gi bden stengs nas | sring cig sgra
4. bla’i rgyal ṃo la | ma mo dgu khri dgu ’buṃ ’khor gyis bskor | sngon =| ’dir =| g.yung drung =| bsgrub chen =| mi mthun  =|
5. bcol ba’i =| stag ri rong | bhyo | sngon tshe bskal pa dang po la | sangs rgyas bstan pa’i gtso bo yi | spyan sngar khas
6. blangs daṃ bcas pa | stag gzig rgyal ṃo stag ri rong | rgyud bsrungs ma mo mthu mo che | bstan srung ma mo’i gzi mdang

From the dark depths of the northern turquoise ocean, gNam phyi dgung rgyal, Ye phyi gung (recte gong) sangs, Phyo ma ye sangs and gNam sman dkar mo, you four Magical Faeries, sentinels of the Word, do not falter... !


sGra bla ma
bSo! From your tent of turquoise and darkness, from atop you seat of wild dog, wolf and tiger, one sister, queen of the sound-souls, surrounded by your entourage of ninety thousand and nine hundred thousand ma mo, do not falter... !

sTag ri rong
Bhyo! You, who in a distant bygone age, in the presence of the foremost one of the enlightened one’s doctrine bound yourself with a promise, sTag ri rong, queen of sTag gzig, powerful ma mo who protect the teachings, glorious ma mo who protect the doctrine,


1. can | ma mo bye ba ’khor gyi bskor | sngon =| ’dir =| g.yung drung =| bsgrub chen =| mi
2. mthun =| bcol ba’i =| sman mo bskul ba | kye phyogs phyogs dag kyang pha gi na | nyi ma byang phyogs pha gi nas |
3. lha ’bri dkar ṃo’i bdan steng nas | byang sman rgyal ṃo sku bzhugs pa | byang sman ’bum sogs ’khor gyi bskor | sngon gyi =|
4. ’dir =| g.yung drung =| bsgrub chen =| mi mthun =| bcol ba’i =| zhi ba lhan skyes gyis gtor bskul | e ma ho | mkha’
5. dbyings bde chen yum gyis gzhal yas nas | ye shes mkha’ ’gro mchog gi dngos grub ster | rdzu phrul rhrṃo (mkha’ ’gro) bka’ yi dngos grub rtsol |
6. las kyi mkha’ gro mthu dbang dngos grub gter | ’jig rten mkha’ gro’i tshe bkrag dngos sgrub gter | daṃ tshig rjes ’dzin mkha’ gro’i ma tshogs las |

surrounded by your host of a million ma mo, do not falter... !

The exhoration of the sman mo
Hey! In all directions, in the north, atop a divine white yak-cow as her seat, is the faery queen of the north, surrounded by her host of a thousand northern faeries and others. Do not forget... !

The exortation, by means of tormas, of Zhi ba lhan skyes (benign divinity who is born together with us)
E MA HO! From the citadel of the mKha’ dbyings bde chen yum, dakini of wisdom, bestow upon us the divine gift of excellence; dakini of action, give us the divine gift of the word; dakini of the world, give us the divine gift of vital radiance; host of dakinis, you who keep your promises,


1. longs spyod rgyan gyis gtor ṃa ’di ’bul bgyis | sngon gyi tha tshig gnyen po ma bnyel par | rnal byor bdags gis daṃ tshig khyed kyis
2. bsrungs | thug je byin rlabs dngos sgrub char ltar phob | bsaṃ pa thaṃs cad yid bzhin ’grub bar mdzod | gcen lha bskul pa ni | bso
3. bar snang rlung sprin thog mtshon gyis | ’jigs byed drag po’i e klong gis | lha chen gcen lha mig dgu
4. ni | ’rda gsha yagsha ragsha dang | gar ma dza la la sogs te | ma ha legs ldan ’khor bcas rnaṃs | sngon =| ’dir =|
5. g.yung drung bon =| bsgrub chen =| mi mthun =| btsol ba’i =| gshin rje bskul ba | bso | lha tshogs ’buṃ ldan gling gi dur ’khrod kyis |
6. rdo rje brag chen gtaṃ pa’i ra ba na | thod pa skaṃ rlon brtsigs pa’i sku mkhar nas | yab cig khrol (khro rgyal) gshed dmar

I offer you these decorated tormas for your enjoyment; do not forget your commitment of old; protect the vows of this yogin; shower me with your compassion, your blessings and your siddhis, and fulfil all my wishes!

The exhortation of gCen lha
bSo! In the triangular, terrifying fearsome realm (e klong) of wind, cloud and thunderbolts in mid-air, is the great nine-eyed god, gCen lha, with his retinue of ’rda gsha, yagsha, ragsha and gar ma dza la, and Ma ha legs ldan; do not forget...!

The exhortation of gShin rje
In the enclosure, filled with great adamantine crags, of the cemetery of the continent with the host of a myriad gods, from the royal castle of heaped-up dry and fresh heads, is the one born of the one father, the wrathful king, the all-subduing red executioner,

gCen lha: a special protector of the rNam par rgyal ba cycle, he was originally a demon who was converted into a protector.


1. spyi ’dul dang | yuṃ cig srid pa’i rgyal ṃo sgrol byed gnyis | yab yuṃ gnyis ṃed sku gsung thugs
2. las sprul pa’i sras | las kyi gshin rje nag po mthu bo che | zhal cig phyag gnyis ral kyu bhan rda zhag |
3. g.yas g.yon rkyang bskuṃ klu rgyal ma he chibs | chags pa’i rgyal po gnyis ṃed bsnyaṃ pa’i yum | yab yuṃ gnyis ṃed sku gsung thugs
4. las su | gshin rje lha brgyad gtso ’khor sprul par bcas | bka’ nyan stong bdud dmar nag las byed dang | e
5. ka tsa ti gza’ mchog rgyal po ging | dri za gshin rje klu dbang gnod byin sogs | bdud^n (bdud btsan) gshin rje ma mo sha zan srin po dang |
6. sde dpon srogs bdag ded dpon dregs pa’i tshogs | ’dir byon gshen rab bdag la sdong grogs mdzod | daṃ rdzas phud dang gtor ṃa’i

and the one mother, Srid pa’i rgyal mo, the two liberators; and the son born from the body, speech and mind of the indivisible father and mother, the powerful black lord of death, the agent of karma, with one face, two arms, holding a sword (ral kyu = ral gri) and skull cup (zhag); his right leg extended and the left retracted, riding klu rgyal ma he (see note); and the consort who is united as one with the king of desire; from the body, speech and mind of the united couple are manifested the eight lords of death, the leader and his circle, with his followers, their agents, the thousand red and black demons; Ekajati, gZa’ mchog rgyal po, and the ging; the fragrance-eaters, the lords of death, the mighty serpent-spirits, the yakshas and others; the demon-btsan, the lords of death, the ma mo, the rakshasas, the srin po demons; the general, the Master of Life (one of the sde brgyad) and the captains, the haughty ones: come hither! Give me, gShen rab, your support! May these fine items, these first-offerings and these tormas,

Line 3, klu rgyal ma he; check iconography; the usual mount is chu srin ma ha (ma ha = makara); while klu rgyal is compatible with chu srin, ma he, buffalo, is not, though gShin rje usually does ride a buffalo.

Line 5, gza’ mchog rgyal po: unlikely to be a reference to gZa' mchog byi hri pa tra, one of the sde brgyad, since he appears below. Possibly Rahula?

Line 5, ging: either the skeleton-dancer or a reference to Ging chen srog bdag.


1. thugs daṃ kang | ma rda bcol ba’i phrin las grub par mdzod | mi bdud bskul pa | bso bdud yul kha rag mun ’thibs
2. nas | bdud mkhar lcags pa rtse dgu nas | dgra bdud ’byaṃs pa khra mgo yang | yab yuṃ sras dang
3. bcas pa rnaṃs | sngon =| ’dir byon =| g.yung drung =| bsgrub gshen =| mi mthun =| bcol ba’i =| dreg chen brgyad bskul |
4. bso | gshan bdud ’byaṃs pa lag drug dang | dmu bdud khaṃs pa sha zan dang | klu bdud nag po zangs mchu dang |
5. gshin rje klag sha nag po dang | gza’ bdud byi ti pa ta dang | bdud gshen re te ’gong g.yag dang | phya bdud srid pa’i rgyal po
6. dang | btsan bdud rgyal po he ru a | yab yuṃ ’khor dang bcas pa rnaṃs | sngon =| ’dir =| g.yung drung =| bsgrub gshen bdag- |

ensure that you honour your commitment. Do not stint - accomplish the tasks you have been assigned!

The exhortation of Mi bdud
bSo! From the demon-land of Kharag, where the darkness gathers, from the nine-peaked iron palace of demons, enemy-demon ’Byams pa khra mgo (Hawk-headed Kindness) with your consort and your son, do not falter...!

The exhortation of the eight Haughty Ones
bSo! Executioner-demon named Six-armed Kindness; dMu demon Khams pa Flesh-eater; Black serpent-spirit demon Copper-lips; Lord of Death, Black klag sha (?); Planet-demon Byi ti pa ta; Demon-priest Re te ’gong g.yag; Phya demon Srid pa’i rgyal po; btsan demon, king He ru a; father and mother with your entourage, do not falter...!

Line 5, klag sha nag po: possibly to be found in the Drwa nag cycle?


1. mi mthun | bcol ba’i =| dmag dpon bskul ba | kha | bso yul ni li yul li bstod na
2. mkhar ni bse mkhar smugs po nas | che btsan dmag dpon yang ni wer |yab ni li rdzoṃ gser gyis
3. gcod paṇ can | yum cig ne nag sman gyi rgyal ṃo dang | gsang ba’i yuṃ cig ma mgo g.yu mtsho dang |
4. bka’i blon po rtsal thog rgyung gis dri btsan dang | las kyi phyag snyen bdud po spun dgu dang | phyag bnyer srog cod
5. ha la mi kun dang | bla ’khyaṃs ’gugs byed sdo ring dmar po dang | las la bskul byed gsang ba’i ma bzhi dang |
6. las byed daṃ can shan pa mched bzhi dang | srog la shen [< gshed] byed bdud po spun dgu dang | las kyi bka’ nyan bdud

The exhortation of dMag dpon
bSo! In the land of upper Khotan (li yul li bstod), in the palace called Brown bse Palace is the mighty general Yang ni wer; his father is Li rdzom with the golden crown and the one mother is Ne nag, queen of the sman. His secret consort is Ma mgo g.yu mtsho, and his power-wielding minister is the calamity-bringing btsan of the [nine] rgyung [mountains]; his agents are the nine demon siblings, and his attendant is Ha la mi kun; the red standing stone for retrieving wandering souls, the four secret mothers to incite to action, the four executioner siblings who are oath-bound agents, the nine siblings who sever life, and the hosts of minor demons and btsan, who do his work: do not falter...!


1. phran btsan phran tshogs | sngon =| ’dir =| g.yung drung =| bsgrub gshen =| mi mthun =| bcol ba’i =| btsan hur
2. pa’i bskul pa | [ka] | bso btsan yul bye ba phyod dkar nas | btsan mkhar shag pa byang dmar nas | btsan bdud rgyal po
3. he ru a | yab yum ’khor dang bcas pa rnaṃs | sngon =| ’dir =| g.yung drung =| bsgrub gshen =| mi mthun =| bcol =| a bse
4. bskul ba ni | [ga] | bso yul ni byang shar btsan gyi yul | mkhar ni bse mkhar dmar po na | a bse rgyal ba dgra ’dul
5. rtsal | yab yum sras ’khor dang bcas pa rnaṃs | sngon =| ’dir =|g.yung drung =| bsgrub gshen =| mi mthun =| bcol =| rgyal po nyi
6. spang sad kyis bskul ba | bso ri rab lhun po’i shar phyogs nas | rgyal mkhar ldem pa’i nang shed nas | seng rta phun

The exhortation of Hur pa the btsan
bSo! In the land of the btsan, Bye ba phyod dkar, in the btsan castle Shag pa byang dmar, is the king of the btsan demons He ru a with his consort and entourage. Do not falter...!

The exhortation of A bse
bSo! In the land of the btsan in the northeast, in the red bse castle, is the powerful (? rtsal) enemy-subduing victor, A bse, with his consort, his son and his entourage. Do not falter...!

The exhortation of rGyal po Nyi pang sad
bSo! To the east of great Mt Meru, inside the royal castle lDem pa, from atop his seat, a red-maned horse, white as a snow-lion,


1. dmar bdan sting nas | rgyal po chen po nyi pang gsad | rgyal po bzhi sogs ’khor gyis bskor |
2. sngon =| ’dir =| g.yung drung =| bsgrub gshen  =| mi mthun =| bcol ba’i =| ’dir yul sa bskul pa btang de nas gter
3. bdag bskul te | kye’ sngon tshe ston pa’i spyan sngar ru | gnas chen bsrungs ma zhal bzhes pa’i | khas
4. blangs dam bcas tha tshig can | dbus kyi lha gnyan g.yung drung rtsal | shar gyi rgyal po gang gnyan rje | byang gi nyang lha
5. btsan drug rje | nub gyi bdud nag rngam sgra sgrogs | lho yi ma mo g.yu ’od sman | bstan skyongs rkong btsun
6. de mo dang | gtsug rje yid zhin nor bu dang | rdzu phrul klu dbang rgyal po dang | gnas chen bon ri’i zhing skyongs rnaṃs |

is the great king Nyi pang sad, surrounded by the four kings and others in his retinue. Do not falter...!

At this point perform the exhortation of the territorial divinities and the exhortation of the treasure guardians, and say: Hey! You, who in a distant bygone age, in the presence of the foremost one of the enlightened one’s doctrine bound yourself with a promise to protect the holy sites: awesome divinity in the centre, lHa gnyan g.yung drung rtsal; king of the east, Gang gnyan rje; Nyang-divinity of the north bTsan drug rje; black demon of the west, rNgam sgra sgrogs; ma mo of the south, gYu ’od sman; protectors of the doctrine, rKong btsun de mo, gTsug rje yid bzhin nor bu; magical mighty king of the serpent spirits; protectors of the holy site of the Bon Mountain of Kongpo;


1. phyi nang gsang ba bar ’khor gyis | gnas bdag bstan srung lcaṃ dral rnaṃs | sngon =| ’dir =| g.yung drung =| bsgrub
2. gshen bdag =| mi mthun =| bcol =| poṃ ra’i bskul pa | kyai ’dzaṃ gling ri mtsho’i gzhal yas nas | yul
3. sa’i rgyal po poṃ ra ni | sku ṃdog dkar la ’od zer ’bar | phyag na mdung dar ru mtshon bsnams | sing rta g.yu rngog chibs su
4. bcibs | yul sa’i sde tshogs ’khor bcas rnaṃs | sngon =| ’dir  =| g.yung drung =| bsgrub gshen =| mi mthun rkyrn- |
5. bcol =| dang ra’i gter bdag bskul ba | kyai’ | dangs ra’i tsho sman gser dang yi ge ma | dang chung la sogs sman phran stong
6. sde dang | rta sgo sge rgen la sogs btsan gyi tshogs | lcaṃ dral sprul pa ’khor dang bcas pa rnaṃs | sngon =| ’dir=|

place-gods of the outer, inner and secret circuits, protectors of the doctrine, together with your consorts, do not falter...!

The exhortation of Pom ra
Hey! From the citadel of the worlds mountains and lakes, Pom ra, king of territorial gods, white in colour and ablaze with rays of light, bearing your standard, a lance banner, astride your lion mount with its turquoise mane, surrounded by your hosts of territorial divinities, do not falter...!

The exhortation of the treasure-guardians of Targo
You, lake goddess of Dangra, gold-radiant Yi ge ma, with Dang chung and your host of thousands of other lake-goddesses of Dangra, and lesser sman goddesses; Targo dGe rgan and the hosts of other btsan, with your consorts and your entourages, do not falter...!

Line 3, sing rta: on fol. 14 [adjust] sing rta has been translated as “, white as a snow-lion”, since Nyi pang sad’s mount is in fact a white horse. Pom ra, however, rides a white lion.

Line 5, dang chung: it is unclear whether this is the name of an individual divinity or a class of minor gods.


1. g.yung drung =| bsgrub gshen =| mi mthun =| bcol =| yi phyi ma’i bskul pa | bso yul
2. ni dbus kyi bsgrub gnas su | has po ri yi klu bdud nag po dang | bsaṃ yas brag btsan dmar po dang | lha sa ni
3. sing klu mo dkar mo rnaṃs | sngon =| ’dir =| g.yung drung =| bsgrub gshen =| mi mthun =| bcol =| spa gro bsrung ma’i
4. bskul ba | bso spa gro gnyan gyi gter bsrungs ni | thang lha yar bzhugs yar lha shaṃ po dang | sku lha drags skyes =
5. gsang ba rin chen dang | e ka tsa te thig le stong khyab ma | spa gro gnyan gyi gter bsrungs rnaṃs | sngon =| ’dir =|
6. g.yung drung =| bsgrub gshen =| mi mthun =| bcol ba’i =| gter kha spyi yi bskul ba | bso gter kha gsuṃ rgya drug bcu la |

The exhortation of Yi phyi ma
You who are in the meditation places of Central Tibet: Klu bdud nag po of Mt Has po ri; Brag btsan dmar po of bSam yas, and white Ni sing klu mo of Lhasa, do not falter...!

The exhortation of the protectors of Paro
bSo! Treasure guardians of awesome Paro: Yar lha sham po, seated high on Mt Thangla; sku lha Drags skyes and gSang ba rin chen; Ekajati and Thig le stong khyab ma—treasure guardians of awesome Paro, not falter...!

The exhortation of all the treasuries
bSo! You,

Line 1, yi phyi ma: unknown


1. sor sor gnyer du gtad pa yi | gter srungs lcaṃ gral ’khor bcas rnaṃs | sngon =| ’dir =| g.yung drung =| bsgrub gshen =|
2. mi mthun =| bcol =| de nas gter bdag bskul pa ni | e ma ho | dgongs rgyud khyad par can gyi dam la btag pa
3. yi | sprul pa’i las  rnaṃs mdzad pa’i daṃ tshig can | ’jig rten ’di dang ’jig rten gnas pa yi | daṃ can srungs
4. ma’i sde tshogs thaṃs cad la | daṃ rdzas bdud rtsi gtor ṃa ’di ’bul kyis | sngon gyi tha tshig gnyan po ma bsnyel bar | rnal sbyor
5. bdags gis daṃ tshig khyed kyis srungs | tshe la bar chad med par srungs du gsol | bsaṃ pa thaṃs cad yid zhin grub par mdzod |
6. ’gur lha bstan ma bskul ba | bso bod kyi lha dgu gtsang ma’i lha rigs dang | zhang zhung lha rigs mdo’ khaṃs rmad kyi lha | rje yi ’gur lha

who have been assigned to the various 360 treasuries, with your consorts and your entourages, do not falter...!

The exhortation of the treasure guardians
E MA HO! You, whom the exceptional mind-lineage masters bound with oaths, and who perform miraculous actions; this world, and all you host of oath-bound protectors who dwell in it through these excellent items of nectar and tormas that I am offering you, do not forget your solemn commitment of old; protect the vows of this yogin; protect me from obstructions in this life, and fulfil all my wishes!

The exhortation of the ’gur lha and the brtan ma
bSo! All (lit. nine) you gods of Tibet, pure race of gods, gods of Zhangzhung, and gods of low-lying Amdo and Kham, ’gur lha of sovereigns and


1. ’jig rten brtan ma dang | yul gyi yul lha gzhi bdag drag tsal can | sngon gyi =|
2. ’dir =| g.yung drung =| bsgrub gshen =| mi mthun =| bcol =| gar ’dug yul sa bskul ba | kyai’ stong gsuṃ srid
3. pa’i ’jig ten nas | yul ri’i sa phyogs ’di dag la | gnas pa’i sa bdag klu gnyan dang | yul sa lcaṃ dral
4. ’khor dang bcas | sngon gyis =| ’dir =| g.yung drung =| bsgrub gshen =| mi mthun =| bcol pa’i phrin las grub par mdzod |
5. de nas kun bzang a gsal kyi dmar laṃ gtor ’bul ni | oṃ gshen lha ’od dkar bder shegs rtsa ba’i lha | dus gsuṃ bder shegs sprul
6. pa’i ’khor dang bcas | dpal ṃgon lha srin rigs drug bgegs kyi tshogs | bka’ skyongs daṃ can srungs ma ’khor dang bcas | khyed la dmigs nas

brtan ma divinities of the world, territorial divinities and powerful earth-gods, do not falter...!

The exhortation of the gods of the territory in which one happens to be
Hey! Lords of the earth, fearsome serpent-spirits and territorial divinities, with your consorts and entourages, who dwell in these places, communities and wildernesses in the thrice-thousand world, do not falter...!

Then the offering of the dmar lam gtor ma of Kun bzang a gsal
Om, gShen lha ’od dkar, root-divinity of the tathāgathas, with your entourage of manifested tathāgathas of the three times; glorious defender with your hosts of six realms of demi-gods and obstructive demons, and your circle of oath-bound protectors of the divine word,

Line 5, dmar lam: “1. gtor ’bul gyi cho ga zhig 2. bar do’i skabs kyi snang ba ’char stangs shig gi ming |” (gNa’ bo’i zhang bod tshig mdzod, by dGe bshes Blo gros rab gsal (ed.), 2010.  Lanzhou: Kan su’u mi rigs dpe skrun khang.


1. dgres pa’i mchod yon ’bul | gzugs sgra dri ro rig [< reg] rgyan bon dang gter |’dod pa’i yon tan long spyod bsaṃ mi khyab |
2. ting ’dzin sngags dang tshig gis spel nas ’bul | rgyal ba mnyes shing daṃ can bskang pa dang | lha srin zhi zhing ’gro drug tshim pa
3. dang | bar chod zhi zhing bsod nam thob pa dang | nyaṃs pa bskang zhing gnod byed bzlog nas kyang | bla ṃed g.yung drung gis snying po
4. thob ’gyur cig | a oṃ huṃ | mu ye ha ra sad do thim thim ye thun a | sad hre ye thiṃ thim ye thun a |
5. sad min sni brgyad thim thim ye thun a | khri rtsi drung ni zhi lo thim thim ye thun a | de nas dbal gsas dmar laṃ ni |
6. bso dbal gyis gze ma gyad mo spar ma’i tshogs | gyad dang dmag dpon rgyal chen las mkhan rnaṃs | thugs rje thabs la mkhas

visualising you we make you [the eight] offerings for your delight: form, sound, smell, taste, touch and ornaments; that which is is intangible (bon TY), and treasure; desired qualities and wealth of inconceivable extent, combined with mantras of contemplation and words. May the victorious ones be pleased, and the oath-bound ones satisfied; the demigods pacified, and the beings of the six realms sated; obstructions dispelled and merit obtained; what is spoiled mended, and harm averted, and may we obtain the essence of that which is supreme and enduring. (Mantras follow.)

Then the dmar lam of dBal gsas
bSo! You who execute our deeds: host of mighty gze ma, gyad mo and spar ma; gyad and dmag dpon and [the four] great kings:


1. pa’i gshen rab gyis | srid gsuṃ rtse nas bcoṃs ste sha yi ri bor sprung | khaṃs gsuṃ rtsad nas bcad
2. ste khrag gis rgya mtsho bskyil | bza’ yi mi bzad btung gi mi ding pa | bzlas brjod sngags kyi bkrol nas gnyan mo khyed
3. la ’bul | dmar ’byin chen ṃo da tshur gshegs | sha la bshed [sred] pa da tshur gshegs | khrag la bshed [sred] pa da tshur gshegs |
4. bza’ yi mi bzad sha yi ri bo ’di | dbal mo’i zhal du gsol gyis khaṃ khaṃ khyur khyur gsol | btung ba’i mi
5. deng khrag gis rgya mtsho ’di | dbal ṃo’i zhal du sbreng zhing thaṃ thaṃ thim thim gsol | dgra’o daṃ zan ’di rtsaṃ ma yin gyis |
6. g.yung drung bon gyis bstan pa bshig pa dang | dus gsuṃ gshen rab dbu ’phang smad pa dang | stong gsuṃ rnga thog dkor la ’bag

when gShen rab, through his compassion that is wise in its method, had overcome the three worlds from the very top, he heaped these up as a mountain of flesh, and when he had cut the three worlds at their root an ocean of blood pooled, such that they could never be exhausted by eating or drinking: supplementing this with words and mantras, we offer it to you, awesome ones! Great dmar ’byin, come here, you who crave meat, come! You who crave blood, come! This mountain of meat that can never be exausted by eating, mighty women, take it in your mouths and chew it and munch it! This ocean of blood that can never be drunk to the bottom, pour it into your mouths, mighty women, and gulp it down. Our vow-breaking (lit. vow-eating) enemies—but not just these: those who destroy the Eternal Bon doctrine, and diminish the glory of the excellent gshen of past, present and future; all the drum-holders in the thrice-thousand worlds, who indulge in their wretched gains;


1. pa dang | ’phrin las zab mo’i daṃ la ldog pa dang | bar chod tshe len byed pa’i dgra gegs thaṃs cad la | gsol cig
2. da rung sha dang khrag la gsol | daṃ nyaṃs dgra bo’i sha rus khrag la ni | dbal ṃo’i zhal du sbring zhing khaṃ khaṃ khyur
3. khyur gsol | rngam chen yab kyi zhal du stobs cing stim | gnyis ṃed don gyis rol par mdzad du gsol | drag po’i
4. rkan sgra cheṃ cheṃ gdab tu gsol | dgyes pa’i tshul gyis he he bzhed du gsol | ma ma yag zur kha kha kha thun
5. bhyo | zhes dmar sbreng gtor ṃa zlog tu byed ste | kye bdud dang srin po gnod sbyin bgegs | lha sman ’thor gsas tha tshig can |
6. rje blon lcaṃ gral ’khor dang bcas | sman gyis long spyod ’di bzhes la | pha dang bon gyis bstan pa bsrungs | dgra dang

those who have gone back on their commitment to engage in profound virtuous activity: all these hostile obstructive demons, who cause obstructions and take life—consume them! consume them for flesh and blood! This flesh, bone and blood of our word-breaking enemies: mighty women, pour them into your mouth, and chew and much them! Feed them to your fearsome consort—pour them into his mouth! Enjoy them in your union and consume them! Eat them with loud sounds of fierce smacking and champing! Consume them as you laugh out loud with pleasure! (Mantras.)

Then sprinkle it with red substances and turn it around, [saying]: Hey! Demons, and srin po, harmful and obstructive demons; oathbound lha, sman and ’thor gsas divinities, sovereigns with your ministers, consorts and entourages, consume this wealth of medicines; protect the doctrine of our forefathers and of Bon, and

Line 5, ‘thor gsas: TY – ‘thor gsas 360 | ‘dar gsas gnyis khri gcig stong ...


1. bgegs kyis dpung tshogs shig | mi mthun log pa’i rkyen rnaṃs bzlog | byol kha dgra dang
2. bgegs la thob | kha thun bhyo | mu thun bhyo | mu kha thun bhyo thun bhyo | de nas stag lha’i dmar laṃ ni | bdag
3. nyid dbal bon du gsal ba’i thugs kha nas bruṃ ces gtor ṃa la ’phros pas | gtor ṃa’i snod rin po che’i gzhal yas khang du bsaṃ | aoṃ a huṃ | gsuṃ brjod pa
4. gtor ṃa ’dod don lnga ru bsaṃ mo | bso sngon gyis bskal pa dang po la | dbal gshen stag la’i bka’ nyen las
5. byed ni | log lta bsgrol ba dreg pa’i tshogs | steng phyogs lha yi dreg pa ni | mthing nag dar dkar na bza’
6. can | lha khaṃs ’dul ba’i las mdzod cig | ’og phyogs klu yi dreg pa ni | mthing nag chu dar na bza’ can |

destroy the armies of our enemies and obstructive demons; repel adverse and contrary circumstance; send maledictions against our enemies and obstructive demons. (Mantras.)

Then the dmar lam of sTag lha
Visualise yourself clearly as dBal bon [sTag la me ’bar], and from your heart project the syllable BRUṂ into the torma. Visualise the torma container as a bejewelled temple-palace. Recite OM A HUM three times; visualise the torma as the five objects of desire.

bSo! You, who have been dBal gshen sTag la me ’bar’s followers, his agents, since the dawn of the first age; you, the hosts of haughty ones who annihilate those with wrong views; the haughty ones of the gods above, jet black with robes of white silk, carry out your work of subduing the realm of the gods.

Haughty ones of the serpent spirits below, jet black with robes of white water-silk,


1. due^en (dun tse) bsgrol pa’i las mdzod cig | shar phyogs rgyal po’i dreg pa ni | mthing nag dar dkar go zug can | dus rtsen sgrol
2. pa’i las mdzod =| lha tshogs gshin je’i dregs pa ni | mthing nag mi yi g.yang gzhi gsol | dus rtsen sgrol ba’i
3. las =| nub phyogs klu dbang dreg pa ni | mthing nag dar nag go zu can | dus rtsen bsgrol =| byang phyogs gnod sbyin
4. dreg pa ni | mthing nag dar dmar go zu can | dus rtsen sgrol =| ’tshams kyis dreg pa chen po bzhi | mthing nag zhing
5. gi go zu can | dus rtsen bsgrol =| bso dbal gshen thags la sprul pa’i dreg pa brgyad | mthing nag mtshon
6. cha’i slag pa can | dus rtsen bsgrol =| dreg pa chen po bco rgyad po | kun kyang zhal cig phyag gnyis pa | re g.yab

perform your work of “liberating” Buddhist monks who have broken their vows. Haughty ones of the King of the East, deep black in your dress (go zug) of white silk, perform your work of “liberating” Buddhist monks who have broken their vows. Haughty ones of the Lord of the Dead, deep black and clad in human skins, perform your work of “liberating” Buddhist monks who have broken their vows. Haughty ones of the king of the serpent spirits in the west, deep black and wearing black dress, perform your work of “liberating” Buddhist monks who have broken their vows. Haughty ones of the yakshas of the north, deep black and wearing red dress, perform your work of “liberating” Buddhist monks who have broken their vows. Four great haughty ones of the interstices, deep black and wearing full human skins (zhing chen gyi g.yang gzhi).


1. lcags kyu’i phyag mtshan gyis | dreg pa dmag la skul zhing dun tse’i snying khrags byin |
2. khyod kyi las bskul dun tse sgrol | dbal bon gtor ṃa ’di long la | gshen gyis bstan pa bsrungs du gsol |
3. bso dbal gshen stag la’i bka’ nyan pa | dbyings kyi ma mo ye shes ma mo dang | las byed ma mo’i tshogs
4. dang bcas | g.ya’ ri gangs ri mtsho sman dang | bod khaṃs skyongs pa’i rtan ma dang | sde brgyad dpon ṃo bon skyongs rnaṃs |
5. bka’i dbal gtor ’di bzhes las | g.yung drung bon gyis bstan pa bsrungs | dgra gegs sgrol ba’i las bgyis la |
6. byad ma sgrol ba’i las mdzod cig | de nas spyi ’dul gyis dmar laṃ ni | bswo sngon tshe khro rgyal spyi ’dul spyan snga

with the hook that is your attribute urge your army of haughty ones to action and spill the heart-blood of vow-breaking Buddhist monks; liberate the lapsed monks, as you have been urged to do. Please, receive these tormas of mighty Bon, and protect the doctrine of the gshen priests. bSo! Followers of dBal gshen stag la, ma mos of the primordial dimension (dbyings), ma mos of wisdom and ma mos of action; sman goddesses of the slate hills, the snow mountains and the lakes; brtan ma who protect the land of Tibet; glorious protectors from the eight classes, and protectors of Bon, receive this powerful torma of the sacred word and protect the Bon doctrine; execute your task of liberating the enemies and obstructive demons, and of liberating evil powers.

Then the dmar lam of [the yidam Khro rgyal] sPyi ’dul


1. ru |  khas blangs dam bcas bka’ la gnas pa yi | ye shes rdzu phrul las dang ’jig ten gyis | dbal dang ma mo
2. ’jig ten dreg pa’i tshogs | ’dir byon sha khrag dmar gyis gtor ṃa bzhes | rol cig daṃ nyaṃs dgra bgegs sha khrag
3. ’di la rol | srung cig sang rgyas bstan pa gnyan po bsrungs | bzlog cig mi mthun rkyen dang bar chod bzlog | sgrol
4. cig sdang dgra gnod bgegs shug gi sgrol | mdzod cig rnal sbyor bcol ba’i phrin las mdzod | bso raṃ raṃ bso bso ma
5. ma dza dza bhyo bhyo | ha ha he he shag shag dul dul bzlog bzlog | srid rgyal rde’u dmar gyis dmar laṃ ni | oṃ yid
6. ’ong mdzes pa’i gtor gzhong du | rmad ’byung bdud rtsi gtor ma’i bkang | ’dod yon rnaṃ lnga’i long spyod la FROM OR ONTO? | ye shes lnga

You who long ago agreed to be bound by oath in the presence of Khro rgyal spyi ’dul, and have kept your word, host of dbal mo and ma mo of wisdom, of magic of action and of the world, haughty ones of the world, come here and receive these tormas of red flesh and blood! Enjoy! Enjoy the flesh and blood of vow-breakers, enemies and obstructive demons. Protect! Protect the awesome doctrine of the enlightened one. Repel! Repel adverse circumstances and obstructions. Liberate! Liberate forcefully the hate-filled enemies, harmers and obstructions. Execute! Execute the tasks that this yogin has entrusted to you. (Mantras.)

The dmar lam of Srid rgyal with the Red Mule
OM, the beautiful torma vessel is filled with wonderful tormas with nectar; onto the five-fold objects of desire for enjoyment


1. yi ’od zer ’phros | kun bzang yab yum dbyings su ’bul | bla med mchod par bzhes su gsol | bso oṃ
2. bu tsam bha ling kha raṃ kha hi | oṃ ’jig ten ’khor yug gtor gzhong du | mtshal ri zur gsuṃ gtor ṃas bkang | ’dod yon
3. rnaṃs lnga’i long spyod la | ye shes lnga yi =| mkha’ ’gying yab yuṃ dbyings su =| zad med rol bar bzhes su gsol | bso oṃ pu
4. rtsam bha ling kha raṃ kha hi | oṃ bhan rda ’bar ba’i gtor gzhong du | zhi rgyas dbang drag gtor ma’i bkang | ’dod yon rnaṃ
5. lnga’i long spyod =| ye shes lnga’i ’od zer =| ma cig lha ṃo’i thug daṃ skang | kun snang rol bar bzhes su gsol | oṃ pu tsam bha =|
6. oṃ shes rab ’od ldan zhal bu ru | sman rag g.yu ’brang yu ti’i bkang | ma ma mchog rgyal mo’i thug daṃ skang | mtshan ldan bkra shis

shine forth light-rays of the five wisdoms. We offer this to the primordial dimension (dbyings) of the two Kun bzang in union. Please, receive this as a supreme offering! bSo! (Mantras.) The torma vessel of the world and its surroundings is filled with the triangular torma that is the Vermilion Mountain. Onto the five-fold objects of desire for enjoyment shine forth light-rays of the five wisdoms. We offer this to the primordial dimension (dbyings) of [gTso mchog] mKha’ ’gying [and his consort] in union. Receive this as a manifestation of the inexhaustible! (Mantras.) The blazing skull that is a torma receptacle is filled with tormas of pacifying, enriching, overpowering and destructive action. Onto the five-fold objects of desire for enjoyment shine forth light-rays of the five wisdoms. May the wishes of the One mother, the goddess, be fulfilled; receive them as a manifestation of the fact that all is a display! (Mantras.) OM, the little cup that shines with the light of wisdom is filled with medicine, liquour, honey and chang; may the wishes of the supreme mother, the queen [Srid pa’i rgyal mo] be fulfilled! The fine and auspicious

Line 2, mTshal ri, Vermilion Mountain: a mountain that stands at the summit of Mt Tise.


1. zhal bu ru | ting mur rag ta khrag gis bkang | ba ga klong chen thug daṃ skang | bhan rda rigs bzangs ’bar ba ru | skye
2. ’gro stong gi tsitas bkang | mu la tsa med thug daṃ skang | mchog dang thun ṃongs dngos sgrub tsal du gsol | bso sngon gyi skal pa
3. dang po la | gsang ’dus gshen gyis spyan lnga ru | ji ltar khas slang dam bcas bzhin | bka’ blon bdun bcu
4. rtsa gnyis dang | gyog ’bangs brten ma bcu gnyis dang | bran ’khor lha srin sde rgyad tshogs | gsang mchog rol
5. pa’i lhag ma bzhes | rang rang mthun pa’i sman ngo longs | ’gro drug seṃs can thaṃs cad la | kun kyang mnyes shing
6. tshim gyur cig | dra ba dmar nag gis bskul pa bzhugs pa legs so | ka dra ba dmar nag lha srin rnaṃs | sngon gyis srid

goblet is filled with blood; may the wishes of [the goddess] Ba ga klong chen be fulfilled! This blazing noble skull is filled with the hearts of a thousand living being: may it delight Mu la tsa med. Pray, bestow upon us extaordinary and ordinary powers!

bSo! In accordance with the promise you made at the beginning of the first world-age in the presence of gShen gSang ba ’dus pa, seventy-two ministers and their attendants, the twelve brtan ma, and their servants, the hosts of the eight categories of demigods of the phenomenal world, receive these leftovers of the offerings that have been enjoyed by the supreme secret ones, and take whatever medicine is suitable for you; may it delight and satisfy all the denizens of the six realms!

The exhortation of the Red and Black Dra ba
You demigods, the Red and Black Dra ba,

Line 1, ting mur: a Zhangzhung term for blood.
Line 1, ba ga klong chen: ba ga in Bonpo texts is frequently used as a synonym for gnas lugs, the natural state.
Line 2, tsita (variously spelt): a Zhangzhung term for heart.
Line 2, mu la tsa med: the name of a Zhangzhung goddess.


1. shog | btsan rgod hur pa daṃ la ’dus | khrag gis gzer mda’ dgra la rgyob | ’byaṃs pa khrag mgo
2. dgra bo’i snying la rgyob | bdud po mgo dgu daṃ la =| dgra bo’i spyi bdud chod la shog | dgra bdud ’thoṃ po daṃ la =|
3. dgra srog ze mas bzung la shog | rnyab pa lag rings daṃ la ’du | dgra bla zhags pas bzung la shog | thang yag
4. btsan po =| dgra bo lha dang khrol la shog | bdud lcaṃ mthing rol =| dgra bla dmu gab g.yob la shog | ngar mo
5. thogs ’bebs =| thog mda’ dmar po dgra la rgyob | bdud lcaṃ gser mgo =| dgra srog ga’u chugs la shog | kha lcaṃ
6. dug mchu daṃ =| dgra snying tshal par gshog la shog | gshen bdud ’thoṃ po =| dgra srog spar kyi thob la shog |

Bind the fierce btsan Hur pa with an oath! Shoot arrows of sharp pain in the blood at our enemies; shoot them at the heart of the enemy, Byams pa khrag mgo; bind the nine-headed demon with an oath; come to destroy all the demons of our enemies; bind the enemy-demon firmly with an oath; let the gze ma come and seize the enemy’s life force; bind rNyab pa lag rings with an oath; come and catch the enemy’s soul with a noose; bind Thang yag btsan po with an oath; come and liberate the enemy lHa dang; bind the demon-consort mThing rol with an oath; come and afflict the enemy’s soul with dmu gab. Bind Ngar mo thogs ’bebs with an oath; smite the enemy with a red thunderbolt. Bind bDud lcam gser mgo with an oath; come and put the enemy’s life force inside an amulet-box. Bind Kha lcam dug mchu with an oath; come and cleave the enemy’s heart into small pieces. Bind gShen bdud ’thom po with an oath; come and spar kyam thob the enemy’s life force.

Line 4, dmu khab: dmu khab, “’go ba’i lha lnga sgrib pa’i mnol grib


1. dmu bdud ’thoṃ po dam la ’dus | dgra bo’i bla khyaṃ khug la shog | klu bdud bzong mchu =|2. dgra la mdze yaṃ lhog rgod thong | gshin rje g.yag rlag =| dgra bo’i lus seṃs phrol la shog | byin ti pa ta
3. daṃ =| dgra khaṃs cham la phob la shog | dri btsan dmar po =| dri nad hur thuṃ dgra la thong | shan pa gri thog daṃ la =|
4. don snying lhun gzugs phrol la shog | dmag dpung dgra la ’dren pa yi | bya nag dbang rgyal daṃ =| dgra bo’i
5. mkhar la bya phob cig | bdud lug nag po’i snying khrag dang | rtol po khaṃs pa’i snying sha dang | sha khrag dmar
6. gyi gtor ṃa ’di | bdud btsan khyed la ’ben du ’dren | dbal las rngaṃ pa’i bka’ ma ’da’ | gtad pa’i dgra bo daṃ zan

dMu bdud ’thom po, who has been bound with an oath, come and summon the enemy’s wandering soul! Oath-bound Klu bdud bzong mchu, come and afflict the enemy with fatal ulcers! Oath-bound gShin rje g.yag rlag, come and part the enemy’s body and mind! Oath-bound Byin ti pa ta, come and defeat the enemy realm! Oath-bound Sri btsan dmar po, come and prostrate the enemy with illness that causes untimely death! Oath-bound Shan pa gri thog, come and separate the enemy’s heart from his limbs and body! Oathbound victorious black bird, you who lead the army against the enemy, send birds down onto the castle! This torma of flesh and blood, made with the heart blood of a black demon sheep and flesh from the heart of a brown yak-cow hybrid, we ... ? bdud btsan khyed la ’ben du ’dren. Do not neglect the command to perform fierce and savage deeds! This oath-breaking enemy


1. ’di | bdud btsan khyed la dor bsdos so | bon po bdag la ’dren rtsal lo | ’dir spyon daṃ can daṃ ma ’da’ | dgra
2. la ltas ngan bya phob cig | ces bya la khyung ka dang so bya hor khra gsuṃ dgra phyogs sgyur ro | gyer dbyangs u ya | bso oṃ a thun
3. nye lo yo thun spung so thod thun | he rag sha ge be re ne bere | tsa ra tsa ma ma traṃ gus sre ra yo dza dza | brings
4. ... bkra shis | dge’o | zhal dro |

(text in Zhang zhung script)

whom you are facing is challenging you, bdud and btsan (or – bDud btsan)! I pray you, fetch him to me, bring him here – do not fail in your commitment! Send ill-omened birds down on the enemy! With these words, direct choughs, cormorants and Mongolian falcons against the enemy. The melody is u ya. (Mantras.) Blessings.